Journal of Artificial Intelligence for Medical Sciences
Home > Article Structure and Organization

Cover Letter

Including a cover letter with your submission gives you a chance to convince the Editors that your article is suitable for publication in the journal and of importance to its readership. A cover letter should be no more than two pages long and should include all the standard elements which are to be expected in an official letter (for example, the date and the address of the recipient, etc.). The Author(s) should confirm that the submission is original (include the title of the manuscript and the journal name) and not under consideration for publication in another journal. Furthermore, you should briefly mention the focus of the manuscript (no more than 4-5 sentences). Note that while we ask the Author(s) to provide competing interest information separately, you are welcome to also include this information in the cover letter. Please download the the cover letter template for your reference.


The abstract of your article should briefly state the purpose of the research, the main results and the major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. It should therefore not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references. If references are still deemed essential, then cite the Author(s) and year(s). Also, if non-standard or uncommon abbreviations cannot be avoided they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

Graphical Abstract

A graphical abstract is a graphical equivalent of the written abstract of an article. Graphical abstracts should be a single image, designed to help the reader to quickly gain an overview of the article and to ascertain the purpose and results of a given research. Graphical abstracts are intended to facilitate online browsing, to help readers quickly identify if an article is relevant to their research interests, and to draw extra attention to an article thereby increasing its readership. Adding a graphical abstract to an article is optional, but if included it has to be submitted as a single figure meeting the general artwork requirements. Note that graphical abstracts should not exceed 280 (width) x 140 (height) pixels in size and that no caption is to be included with the figure.


Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 8 keywords, using American-English spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (for example, avoid “and”, “of”, etc.). Also avoid using abbreviations unless they are firmly established in the field. Note that these keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

Subdivision – Numbered Sections

Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. Note that the abstract should not be included in the section numbering. Use the section numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.


Abbreviations which are non-standard in the field should be defined at their first mention in the text and used consistently thereafter. Definitions can be placed in a footnote on the first page of the article.


An introduction should state the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background. Make sure you explain the nature of the problem and provide the context of why the work is important. Avoid a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results and make sure you include all the relevant references.

Materials and Methods

This section is important to allow reproducibility of your work by an independent researcher. You should therefore provide sufficient details and a description of the techniques and equipment used. Standard techniques and methods used during the work should just be mentioned at the beginning of the section and descriptions of these are not needed. Methods that are already published should be summarized and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described. If lengthy descriptions of experimental procedures are required, the Authors are encouraged to include them in a supplementary file. Where applicable, Authors must confirm whether all ethical approvals for a procedure have been obtained. For clinical trials, Authors have to clarify the study design (prospective, retrospective or other).


Present your results and experimental data in a clear, consistent and concise manner. Only essential results should be included in the text and only points which are important for the discussion should be highlighted. Do not attempt to hide data; any secondary data can be included in a supplementary file.


This section should contain an interpretation of what the results mean and explore their significance. Highlight the impact of your results compared with recent work and relate it back to the problem or original question in your study. Do not repeat the results in this section and avoid extensive citations or a discussion of published literature.


The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section. Recommendations or plans for future studies can be included in this section as well.

Statements and Declarations

The following statements should be included under the heading "Statements and Declarations" for inclusion in the published paper. Please note that submissions that do not include relevant declarations will be returned as incomplete.

Competing Interests: Authors are required to disclose financial or non-financial interests that are directly or indirectly related to the work submitted for publication. Please refer to “Competing Interests and Funding” below for more information on how to complete this section.

Please see the relevant sections in the submission guidelines for further information as well as various examples of wording. Please revise/customize the sample statements according to your own needs.

Research Data

Journal of Artificial Intelligence for Medical Sciences encourages Authors to deposit their research data in a relevant data repository and to cite and link to this dataset in their article. In cases where data sharing is not possible for some reason, Authors are requested to make a statement to explain why the research data cannot be shared. Authors are required to provide a Data Availability Statement along these lines as a mandatory item in the submission process. 

Figure Captions

Authors must ensure that each illustration has a caption. Captions must be supplied separately and not attached to the figure itself. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum, but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. Note that captions should contain the figure number as cited in the text.


Tables should be numbered consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and cited accordingly. They can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article or on separate pages at the end. For each table, please supply a caption consisting of the table number, a brief title and a description of the data shown in the table. Any previously published material must be identified by providing the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table caption after ensuring that permission has been sought from the copyright owner (where required). Any footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters and placed below the table body. Tables should be submitted as editable text and not as images. Avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells and make sure that the data presented in a table does not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.


Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references used. References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first cited. References used in tables or figure captions must be numbered in sequence with those in the text.

  • Citations in text. Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list and vice versa. Any references cited in the abstract must be specified in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If such references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date as either ‘Unpublished results’ or ‘Personal communication’. Citation of a reference as ‘in press’ implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

  • Web references. As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if available (e.g. DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.) should also be mentioned. Web references can be listed separately under a different heading, if desired, or can be included in the reference list as well.

  • References in a special issue. Please ensure that the words ‘this issue’ are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same special issue.

  • Citing Research Data. Datasets, program code and other methods should be recognized as original intellectual contributions and afforded recognition through citation. The journal therefore encourages Authors to appropriately cite underlying or relevant datasets in their manuscript by citing them in the text and including a data reference in the reference list. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available) and year. References to datasets and program code should also include a persistent identifier (e.g. a DOI). Persistent identifiers ensure future access to published digital objects and are assigned to datasets by digital archives, such as institutional repositories, or by partners in various digital preservation initiatives (e.g. Data-PASS).

Reference Style

In text : Designate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual Author(s) can be mentioned, but the reference number(s) must always be included.

In reference list : Number the references (with numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.

Example of reference to a journal publication :

[1] Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002; 347(4):284-7.

Example of reference to a book :

[2] Lawhead JB, Baker MC. Introduction to veterinary science, 2nd edition. Cengage Learning, Boston (MA), 2008.

Example of reference to a chapter in an edited book :
[3] Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.

Example of web reference :
[4] Abrams EM, Becker AB, Gerstner TV. Anaphylaxis related to avocado ingestion: a case and review. Allergy, asthma & clinical immunology [Internet], 2011, Volume 7:12, DOI: Available from: BioMed Central.

Example of research data citation :
[5] Campbell A, Robert K. American national election study, 1948. ICPSR07218v3 [dataset]. Ann Arbor (MI): Inter-university consortium for political and social research [distributor], 1999. DOI:

Notes :

  • Note the shortened form for last page numbers, e.g. 284-7 in the first example above.

  • In case of more than 6 Authors, the first 6 Authors should be listed followed by “et al.”

  • For further details on this reference style, please refer to “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals” (J Am Med Assoc. 1997; 277:927-934) and Samples of Formatted References for Authors of Journal Articles.

Supplementary Materials

The journal accepts electronic supplementary materials – such as applications, presentations, data sheets, images and sound clips – to support and enhance the circulation and presentation of your research. Submitted supplementary items will be published exactly as they are received (Excel and PowerPoint files will appear as such online) alongside the electronic version of the article. Please submit your supplementary materials together with the article and provide a concise and descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary materials during any stage of the publication process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the ‘Track Changes’ option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.


Footnotes can be used to give additional information and may include citations of references included in the reference list. They should be numbered consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text and this feature may be used. If this is not the case, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the reference list. Footnotes cannot contain a table or a figure. Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and placed below the table body instead. Footnotes to the title or Authors of an article are not given reference symbols. Authors are advised to always use footnotes instead of endnotes.

Journal Abbreviations

Journal names should be abbreviated according to: